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UDC 37.013.74 Lada BATALIIA
graduate student of the Department of General and Social
Pedagogics and Acmeology
of Rivne State Humanitarian University
EDUCATIONAL ALTERNATIVES GROWING AND DEVELOPMENT IN THE WESTERN SLAVONIC WORLD
(POLAND, CZECH REPUBLIC, SLOVAKIA)
The article deals with alternative teaching methods of Western Slavonic countries (Czech Republic, Poland and Slovakia), analyzes their features and value in these countries.
Key words: alternative education, class-task system of education, self-development, innovative approaches.
A famous Polish scientist W. Oconee first introduced the term "alternative education" in the pedagogical dictionary, where he interpreted it as new educational processes, new school models that are characterized by innovation, democracy, openness and newness [10, p. 2]. Alternative education establishment teacher is a man who has their own vision and directs their energies on improving the process of teaching and learning, presents their own concept, is an innovator.
The alternative education of the twentieth century has undergone many different changes. For example, in Poland in 1999-2000 there were 381 elementary alternative schools, 445 secondary schools, 356 technical and 159 higher educational alternatives.
During the creation, organization and functioning of alternative schools there can be determined some criteria for their separation:
1. In accordance with the training programs:
- public schools;
- professional schools.
2. In accordance with the educational level:
- initial alternatives;
- alternative higher education institutions.
3. According to the sex of the students:
- men's schools;
- women’s schools;
4. According to the funding of the educational institutions:
- social organization;
- the community;
5. According to the mode of study:
- day schools;
- correspondence schools (external);
- evening schools.
Alternative schools are characterized by:
- author's program of study;
- organizational flexibility;
- credit system of students evaluation;
- professional teaching staff [10, p. 7-8].
An important element of the alternatives are the researches, both theoretical and practical, study on further development of alternative schooling, its specificity, using innovative methods.
The most popular alternative schools of the Western Slavic world are so-called schools of the XXI century, in which the training is aimed at comprehensive development of every child. The task of such schools is to provide the best learning environment, creation of a modern studying program that would be adapted to the needs and capabilities of each student. This applies to both public and private schools. The difference between the definite types of schools lies in the methods and conditions of presented problems implementation.
Thus, the most important features of didactic and educational activities of schools of the XXI century are:
- creation of a comfortable atmosphere for each pupil;
- cooperation with parents;
- implementation of training programs and plans that match not only learning standards, but also the expectations of parents and ambitions of each child.
The well-being of the child in school is an essential activity condition of educational alternatives. Friendly atmosphere in the institution is provided by the teachers. They want to make the learning process interesting and in accordance with the develoment of their pupils. A small number of students per class (16 students) enables the introduction of pedagogical innovations and implementing individual approach to each student. The teacher is doing everything possible to motivate students in the learning process, and students, in turn, feel their support and mutual assistance. The learning process stimulates intellectual activity of students and generates creativity.
The schools of the XXI century cooperate with the parents of their pupils and the management of other schools in matters related to science and education. Parents are actively involved in the meeting, various trips and school celebrations. The celebration of religious holidays, such as Christmas contributes to the formation of family atmosphere. Before the last day of the course each student brings any food item or holiday decorating. They together sit down at the table, savor meals, sing carols, examine photos, records, albums, sent to parents greeting cards. This ensures the communication between pupils, teachers and parents.
A great attention is also paid to the development and improvement of studying plans and programs. More hours are allocated for subjects that are considered important in the learning process, such as foreign languages learning, mathematics. It is being introduced English language (4 hours per week) from the first class in these schools, with the fourth the study of French and German, depending on the choice of the student. In addition, from fourth grade there is a separation on language groups.
A significant role among educational alternatives belongs to physical hardening. In addition to traditional two hours of physical training in all schools of the XXI century there are swimming, rhythm classes, corrective exercises and even dancing in elementary schools. There are also interesting non-lecture (elective) classes, whose purpose is to interest students to develop their creative talents and skills, namely through the introduction of vocal and instrumental, theater, information and other groups [9, p. 13]. Each school of the XXI century must perform three main functions: learning, educational, tutorial.
Based on the mentioned above, the purpose of the school of the XXI century is the comprehensive development of children. Alternative schools, according to the Polish teacher V. Sliverskyi, are such educational institutions that prepare students using innovative educational methods and projects; these are free schools like the Waldorf schools or schools for the educational systems of well-known Montessori and Freyneta educators and innovators [5, p. 12-15].
Among the educational alternatives it is worth noting:
- public schools;
- private schools;
- school partnerships;
- the schools founded by various foundations;
- communal (gminny) schools;
- paid "dance schools" computer, language, printing educational institutions.
Thus, alternative schools are the educational institutions which are characterized by individual educational projects, innovative educational programs and alternative concepts. Many of these schools are created by individuals or organizations as well as churches and cathedrals. Special attention to educational alternatives is today payed by such scientific and educational periodicals of Western Slavonic world as "Education and dialogue" (Poland), "New School" (Slovakia), "Life of alternative schools" (Czech Republic), "Teaching Movement" (Poland) which are issued in these countries since 2000. According to the Ministry of Science and Education of Poland's alternative schools, it should be noted that in the 1992-1993 academic year, 675 alternative schools functioned, in 1993-1994 - 1025, 1994-1995 - 1300, in 1995-1996 - 1601.
So, today the development of alternative schooling in the Western Slavonic countries is very dynamic, and each educational alternative has its own individual character. Educational programs of these schools are characterized by their originality and marked character. These are the first schools that broke the monopoly of public education and opened the way to educational innovation and experimentation. Young teachers, who are enthusiasts, modern, open to criticism, who value the opinion of each pupil, play an important role in the educational alternatives. The significant impact on the work of these schools also have parents who, due to the school charter, are provided with the opportunities to influence the work and the further development of educational alternatives.
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