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UDC 37.091.31-059.2 Yurii OLEKSIN,
Ph.D., Associate Professor,
vice-rector of scientific and pedagogical and educational work
Rivne In-Service Teacher Training Institute
“MAN-CENTERED” SCHOOL HISTORY EDUCATION
In the learning process, it is necessary to take into account that history itself is a process of development and self-fulfilment of humanity in general and of each person in particular.
Key words: sources of modern civilization, principles of secondary school history education, human-centred model in secondary school history education.
In the late 90 th century. national experts on methods of history teaching O. Pometun A. and G. Freiman proposed the approach to the content of school history education, the basis of which was the man that was the main productive force together with the strands: needs and opportunities, skills, desires and interests [3 , p. 4]. In addition, O. Pometun notes that structuring and selection of historical material in the learning process must proceed from the fact that history itself is a process of self-development and self-realization of humanity as a whole and each individual in particular [3, p. 5]. Herewith, the object and the reference point of such self-realization become human, humanitarian values, especially moral, ethical, religious, aesthetic. History teaching itself is intended not only to acquaint students with universal experience searching and finding of these values, but also to give them the opportunity to find crumbs of this experience, making their own assessment, personal attitudes, emotional and value orientation to the events of the public life. Representations and formed on their basis theoretical and philosophical knowledge about human values allow to develop skills and individual qualities of seniors, contributing to its maximum fulfillment during the historical knowledge acquiring.
Such understanding of learning content forces to refuse traditional criteria for the selection of educational historical material. The history of humanity spiritual experience is the core and the main part of the content. Political and economic history are observed as concrete historical conditions (which contributed or prevented) of spiritual self-realization of a man, a particular nation, all mankind in a certain historical era. In addition, political history is highlighted in connection with the analysis of prominent personalities, motivations specific actions, features of their worldview, culture level spirituality etc. This approach to the content of historical material makes it possible to identify the source of modern civilization: the market economy, democratic order, rights and freedoms, tolerance and so on. "It helps the teacher in teaching students to create an image of a man who embodies the totality of biopsychological, social and spiritual spheres of personality, show history as the interaction of specific people with their interests, abilities, morality and so on. This process is the essence of the mankind historical development. However, this approach does not exclude consideration of principles of synchronized and chronologically consistent presentation of historical events that facilitate the perception of the material "[2, p. 5].
The definition of "man-centered" approach is the result of discussions of known Ukrainian historians on the issues around the content of school history education. The result of these discussions in concentrated form is contained in the publications of team leader N. Yakovenko. The researcher stresses that the content of school history course in general should be presented as follows:
- person and space (geographical environment and natural conditions, population and ethnic relations in it, settlement density, etc.);
- person in society (here the whole range of human contact with society - membership of a particular social group, participation in social and public life, involvement in politics, economic processes);
- person and power (especially the power system in which a person lives and causes perception / rejection of power);
- person and the world of ideas of the relevant period (and in the modern era it also means certain system of values imposing on significant masses of people which did not know the pre-modern society);
- person in culture (here the term "culture" is interpreted in the broadest sense, namely not only as education, science or art, but also as a way of life, everyday habits, entertainment, clothing, conscience of the so-called popular culture in the twentieth century, etc.)  .
According to N. Yakovenko, the semantic principles of school history education itself, which is based on a combination of achievements and requirements of historical and pedagogical sciences, are:
- a scientific approach of introducing students with reliable facts and their interpretations in order to develop a holistic scientific outlook;
- a concrete-historical approach, that is the consideration of events and phenomena in the context of the historical time, place, attendant circumstances and the dynamics of flow from causes to effects;
- an alternatively problematic approach, based on using of various historical sources and familiarization with different interpretations of historical events and phenomena;
- a general approach, based on a separation of the most significant in the learning material, as well as outlining the key development trends in the relevant historical period;
- a systematic approach, which is demanding and interdisciplinary integration mizhkursova school education in general and in particular the study of the historical process in organic combination civilization, cultural and anthropological and other aspects;
- an axiological (value-based) approach, that is grafting human moral and ethical values and developing their personal evaluation system based on historical events, personalities, events etc.
- a multicultural approach that focuses on the organic unity of history, culture, language, traditions and customs that ensure continuity and succession of generations of their people, and the need to respect the cultures and customs of other nations;
- a secular approach of introducing students to the history of religions as cultural phenomena for preventing propagation of certain religious teachings [1, p. 7].
Thus, the "man-centered" school history education content model was finally formalized in the new standard of basic and secondary education in the form of through content lines:
- man - man;
- man - society;
- man - power;
- man - world images and ideas;
- man - space;
- man - nature;
- man - world of things. 
Presented contents lines are submitted by groups of the educational sector content components and government requirements for students general education level using a problem-thematic approach, combined with observation, thematic and in-depth study and synchronous teaching courses that are related to the history of Ukraine and World History.
1. Kontseptsiia prohramy vykladannia istorii Ukrainy v shkoli / uporiad. ta red. N. Yakovenko, L. Vedmid. - K: Stylos, 2009. - 87 s.
2. Osmolovskaia I. M. Didakticheskiie printsypy differentsiatsii protsesa obucheniia v obshchieobrazovatelnoi shkolie: dis. ... d-ra ped. nauk: 13.00.01 / I. M. Osmolovskaia. - M., 2002. - 314 s.
3. Pometun O. I. Metodyka navchannia istorii v shkoli / O. I. Pometun, H. O. Freiman. - K: Heneza, 2005. - 328 s.
4. Postanova “Pro zatverdzhennia Derzhavnoho standartu bazovoi i povnoi zahalnoi serednioi osvity” № 1392 vid 23 lystopada 2011 r. [Elektronnyi resurs] / Kabinet Ministriv Ukainy. – Rezhym dostupu : http://www.mon.gov.ua/index.php/ua/pro-ministerstvo/ normativno-pravova-baza / normativno-pravovi-akti-uryadu / postanovi.
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