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RELATIONSHIP OF MEN АND WOMEN IN ISLAM

In DK 282                                                                                                   Lebedyuk T.
                                                                       Rovno State Humanities University (Ukraine)

RELATIONSHIP OF MEN АND WOMEN IN ISLAM

     The paper analyzes the current model of relations of man and woman in the context of globalization.

      Keywords: Islam, family I, a woman, marriage, hijab, polygamy, segregation.

       In article provides an analysis of Modern models vzaymootnoshenyy muzhchynы and women in conditions of globalization.

     Key words: Islam, FAMILY, woman, marriage, hijab, in lyhamyya, segregation.

     European Christendom actually from the very beginning of Islam had contact with representatives of the religion. Contacts were different - both negative (military conquest) and positive (trade, cultural exchange).

     Getting acquainted with the Muslim world, the Europeans could not pay attention to the fact that in Islam a woman is not a position in European society, as is much different relationship between man and woman in Islam and Christianity, particularly in terms of family relations. literature, which addresses this issue quite diverse in its conceptual orientation. European authors writing about the problem of the relationship of man and woman, for the most part (and it is in its own course) guided and guided yevrotsentrychnym approach. The situation of women in Islam, the specifics of her relationship with her ​​husband in the context of the Muslim way of life and perceived largely perceived by European authors as "abnormal" and "uncivilized." Indicative in this respect may be a monograph German author M.Kocha "Violence in Islam? The struggle for the Islamic world community. " Written in decidedly tendentious spirit, it focuses on issues of violence against women in Islam. "Violence, oppression and restriction of women's rights - we read in the paper - permeate the entire history of Islam, from the Prophet Muhammad's sayings and until today, when Islamists you try pravdaty similar situation "[8, p.88]. Actually, the author tries to hold the view that the relationship man and woman in Islam - is a continuous chain of violence over the last first.

     In contrast yevrotsentrychniy of Islamic literature in the Muslim, especially Arab, world appears a lot of literature that tries to protect traditional Islamic values, including the specifics of the relationship between a man and a woman, which occurred in Muslim practice. These should include Mohammed al-Zikiriyu Bardisi, Jamal al-Din, Shahada al-Khoury, and Ibrahim Abdo, Shafiq and Durriyu and others. P ytannya place of women in Ottoman society musul considered in generalizing the works of Soviet islamoznavtsiv L.I.Klymovycha, D.Ye.Yeremyeyeva, T. Sayidbayeva.

      Analysis of the ideology and practice of Islam shows that in his doctrine, ethics and law, this religion is somehow idealize and perpetuates patriarchal family relations. Describing the relationship between men and women in a patriarchal society, sociologist A.H.Harchev rightly observes that "a man linked to a woman as a man, the owner of the share of the social forces that put themselves in a privileged position in relation to all women, jealously protecting their privileges that end up becoming mu habits [10, p.87]. " That habit man patriarchal family, in fact, reflected and fixing in Islam. Often they are treated here as that is understood by themselves.

     In general, Islam has put a woman than a man in unequal position. French islamoloh Henry Massey, from some remarks Prophet Muhammad, concludes, "like a woman Koran does not show any affection." A academician V.V.Bartold observed that "a person Quran women looking almost exclusively in terms of jealous man" [3, p. 36]. Although these considerations there yevrotsentrychnyy approach, they should not be so easy to ignore.

     If a Muslim means "obedient to Allah", the Muslim, according to Islamic beliefs should be submissive to Allah, not only, but also to her husband. "The feeling of superiority in relation to women, which was cultivated for centuries in the male half of the population pryscheplyuvalosya childhood boy, teenager, and, conversely, the sense of inferiority" inferiority "which implanted among the fairer sex - all cemented Muslim tradition: people - God and the king of the family "- wrote D.Yeremeyev [4, p.169]. In a popular hadith tells how Muhammad spoke of his first wife, Khadija, "O Omar (second Caliph. - T.SH.-L.) precious to man - a virtuous wife, acting according to the commandments of God, obedient and brings joy to her husband. When he orders ... she obeys, and when he is absent, she protects his rights for property and honor. "[6, p.112]

     In Islamic the families look at women as inviolable property because it attempts to inflict evil was tantamount to seize foreign owned. Based patriarchal attitudes, Islam sought to restrict the activities of women of the household sector. Expansion of these activities outside these areas, according to many Muslim theologians would threaten family relations, as a Muslim woman in the first place, "must be the guardian of the hearth, a teacher of children ... This is a natural element of the application of its innate abilities and display of feminine nature" [16 ]. This Islamic theologians say that since nature of man and woman is different, then each of them is assigned a certain special role in society. These roles complement each other and each of them is equally basic and necessary for the functioning of society.

     Some believe that the participation of women in social work is not required, because the only decent place for women is the family home. "Man and woman complement each other. Allah has defined each of them a sphere of activity in which each of them can show their greatest ability. On this basis, the scope of women are house hold which it owes so that people could find it in peace and quiet, "- claimed one of the ideologues of Islam Al Saqr yyyya [11, p. 51].

     However, most modern theologians do not oppose a woman's desire to work. Muslim women with the consent of her husband or caretaker relative may engage in social work, your business or participate in social and political life of society, to work for the benefit of the Muslim community (umma) in permissible for a business. Women, in terms of Muslim theologians "can contribute to society according to their skills and interests, but on condition that they do not neglect their domestic duties and their activities are not threatened yihn them dignity and modesty" [9, p. 176]. As an example, the activities of his wife Khadijah Muhammad, who successfully led commercial matters and thus was a loving wife and mother. According to this view, women "can occupy different positions in society with which they cope better or at least no worse than men, for example, in some areas of medicine, nursing, and illuminate, social work, etc. "[9, p.176]. Today, most of the ideologues of Islam does not oppose a woman's desire to engage in socially useful work. They argue that Islam respects the right of women to work - creative work for the benefit of the families and society. However, taking into account the specific nature of women, sharia identifies several conditions that must be provided with a woman engaged in socially useful work.

     First, a woman should possibly work separately from men, as joint work with men is harmful for both women and men.

     Secondly, a woman who wants to work must obtain permission from the hand of her husband, father, brother or guardian.

     Thirdly, the work should not adversely affect the physical and mental condition of the woman.

     Women are recommended to make their efforts in areas where it would be most effective. These, in terms of Muslim ideologues are: field training, education (especially virgin), health care (especially gynecology), the production of women's apparel, consulting services in the field of psychology, design, literary activities, the call to Islam.

     Thus the women outside the home should not take too much time. After all, it is necessary to pay attention to themselves, children and husband.

     Not accidentally Islamic theorists pay attention to some undesirable consequences for ynya toast women at work outside the home. First, they note that the crowded daily traffic problems specific to the industrial cities, adversely affecting the appearance and inner spiritual condition of women.

     Secondly, excessive employment at work distracts a woman from housekeeping, child rearing. A man nevertheless wants to see his wife not advanced production and beloved wife and good mother of his children.

      Thirdly, often doing business men and women who are members of a single office, enterprise, grow in intimate relationships, and this eventually leads to the breakdown of family ties.

     Fourth, the fear of losing their jobs, mothers are forced to leave their children alone unattended, and this leads to all kinds of cases such as fire and others. On the other hand, children who are left without maternal care and affection, can replenish the ranks of socially dangerous criminals.

     In n 'fifth, the woman who ran the strained freedom, removing the man from the work piled on their shoulders the burdens.

     You can not say that these arguments are unfounded. Indeed, industrial development, urbanization led to a number of problems that have a negative impact on family life and parenting.

     And although today Muslims are becoming more socially active, yet many of them focused on family values. For them, family, parenting, housekeeping remain priorities. This is not the last factor of survivability and dynamism of Islamic civilization.

     The meaning of life Muslim by creed of Islam, is to prepare ourselves for the future eternal life. Those women who are humble men and perform all the requirements of faith will enter paradise, the same that were not obedient, violated basic precepts were disobedient - a place in hell, where they will be punished by eternal torment.

     Muslim scholars defined the qualities that you must have a woman at ni want to enter the gates of heaven.

     Firstly, it must be obedient to God and his Prophet. According to one hadith, Ibn Hibban conveyed that the Prophet said: "If a woman prayed five (required) times a day, fasted in the month of Ramadan, guarded their honor and was submissive to the husband, then Judgment Day it will be said:" Come to paradise through any gate "[15]. .

     Second, she has to obey her husband unless he asks her to do something against the law of Allah. An-Nasann conveyed that when the Prophet was asked who the best woman, he replied: "Those that satisfied men, those who obey." Muhammad also said: "If I could order the creature to make a profound bow to someone other than Allah, I would have ordered the woman to do it for her husband. I swear those in whose hands is my soul, if the woman does not fulfill his obligations to her husband, then she does not fulfill his obligations to Allah "[13].

     Thirdly, triggering the wrath of her husband, the wife must hurry to do everything that he forgave her. Ibn Ribbani handed Hadith: "The wife, in which angry people are not accepted her prayers and good actions do not rise to heaven. However, when the wife does not agree to perform any unauthorized Shariah desire male footwear ka, for it on it will not sin. " In another Hadith the Prophet attributed the following words: "Those of your wives will go to paradise, well treated their husbands birth (if able) children and always checked her husband's needs. If people in this woman angry at her, she took his hand and said: "I swear by Allah, I will not lie down to sleep as long as you do not forgive me." [13.]

     Fourth, she has protecting the honor and property in the absence of her husband. In support of this thesis used the following Qur'anic position: "So honored women dutifully committed (to Allah and man) and in its absence protects diamonds that God commanded them to keep" [1, 4:34].

     Fifthly, the woman should be gentle with her ​​husband and satisfy his desires. The Hadith, handed Muslim, Muhammad ascribed the following words: "If a man calls his wife to bed and she refuses, and he goes to sleep angry, the angels curse her until morning" [1 5].

     Sixth, one of the main functions of women - the birth and upbringing of children.

     Seventh, respectable woman is asking divorce for no reason. Muhammad in one of the hadith warned women: "Any woman who asks for a divorce for no reason, not even feel the sweet heaven" [13] ..

     Eighth, a woman should not do any harm to her husband, to be contentious, dorikatyty him speak insulting words which may affect self-esteem man. In some Hadith states that when a woman insults a man, his guru, ie future wife in Paradise, said to him and not commit evil, because it is temporarily and fast at coming to paradise [1 7].

    Ninth, the woman carries an additional fast without the permission of her husband. The exception here is, of course, only the fasting month of Ramadan.

     Tenth, it should not tell others about the intimate side of family life. "And decent women - handsome, keep the secret that keeps Allah" - says in the Qur'an [1, 4:34]. Generally personal life, family secrets should not be the subject of gossip among friends and spouses. Muhammad in a hadith said, "Who of you went to my family and came out of it, closed the door and forgotten, and then tells people that he did with his family, he made ​​haram" [13]. In this respect, quite remarkable is the fact that in the Islamic world, usually not getting and not getting p redmetom public discussion of intimate life can not be said about secular country where until recently was dominated by Christianity.

      Tenth, a woman should not leave the house without her husband, even when intended to go to relatives.

     In the eleventh, it must know and appreciate even the smallest crumb of good that does for her husband, and to express their gratitude to him. Hakim sends a Hadith: The Prophet said, "When I looked into Hell and saw that there are many women." He asked: "O Messenger of Allah to why they were I there?". "Because they do not understand the importance of good that does for them people," - said the Prophet "[13].

     In the twelfth, a woman should not require the man more than is necessary to meet the needs for food, clothing and furniture in the house. In one Hadith it is said that man at the end of the world will lose their mind in acts through his wife and children. They will ask him worldly, and from these searches will lose and secular and faith. [13]

     In the thirteenth, it should be friendly, not contradict, do not raise your voice at her husband even if he is somehow wrong, to try to send him to the truth by not cry, but only the power of belief, calling upon the aid of Allah.

     In the fourteenth, the woman should also be sad when a man is in the way, enjoy his return, be able to quickly lay the table, look at his clothes, take stronger household duties to help her husband, even if Sharia law does not require that from it.

     Islam, outlining ideal respectable woman oriyentuva are men on the humane treatment of their women. Thus, in the Quran about this encounter the following words: "Handle your women well as if they have you captive, they themselves have no freedom of anything that concerns them" [1, 4:39]. The Hadith, which leads Abu Dawood and referring to Omar Abdullah, meet the following words of the Prophet: "... Woman created from ribs and rib curved top. If you might want to straighten it, it will break, and if left alone, it will remain distorted. Handle with women well [5, p. 9]. "

      Islam defines a set of rules that should guide a male Muslim in relation to his wife [2, pp. .76-101].

      First, he has to show for his wife only the best traits, to be friendly; forgive her some weakness, even if she says or does something offensive (in terms and that it transcends Sharia). To the woman also need to treat me with compassion, especially given the female character. In this case, Muslim ideologues often refer to the words of the Koran: "Through all the good children build their relations with their wives" [1, 4:21].

     One Muslim who is well behaved with his wife, declared an exemplary member of the religious December at nities and. "The most perfect, complete faith he has with believers who celebrated the best disposition and the best of you are those who are best placed to their wives" - allegedly said Muhammad according to Tirmidhi [1 4].

     Secondly, the male Muslim should maintain good relations with his wife while even when it it is somewhat unpleasant. In this case also goes a reference to the Koran, which states in part: "And live with them (showing them) beneficence, and if they shall be as unpleasant as can happen, and so that (any why) unpleasant for you Allah hybrids containing many good (good) "[1, 4:19] According to Muslim theologians, these ayatom guarded by marriage of any vagaries arising from changing feelings and inclinations.

      Thirdly, relations with his wife-Muslim man must adhere to the "golden mean." I can not agree with everything that she wanted to do, but you can not severely restrict her desires, making all her defiance.

Fourth, it must be fair to keep from waking his wife in her worst traits as cunning women can be unlimited.

     Fifthly, a man should not to show their concerns about fidelity to his wife, to arrange jealousy through various trivia.

     Sixthly, the man does not have to restrict his wife in costs over and farming. But you can not allow her to very large costs.

      Seventh, it is forbidden to keep his wife on the funds received from the sale of alcoholic beverages and loans with interest. As is known in the Muslim world orthodox forbidden drink alcohol and engage in usury.

       Eighth, Islam encourages man to pay more attention to communicating with his wife and children. In particular, it is recommended that he used food along with his household, and not separately.

      Ninth, the man should tezhy with you that a woman is not in L and w ala house in seductive clothes.

     Tenth, man must act mentor wife in matters of faith, explain her foundation of Islam, talk about allowed and forbidden. He can not forbid his wife and you for getting knowledge to the scholars, if he can not give them.

      In the eleventh, the one who has more than one wife should be evenly divided among the funds and night. If he spent the night with one wife, then tomorrow should spend the night with another. Go to one of the wives out of turn is possible only in case of illness. You can not go to her the day unnecessarily. Do not be valid permit, which gives one of the wives because in yuvannya for divorce, the fact that the time allotted for her husband spent with another wife.

    In the twelfth, people should not limit the rights of a wife, citing the fact that he is stronger.

     In thirteenth-Muslim man should put his wife in an awkward position in front of people when she wants to express its condemnation, make comments about her behavior or correct any of its error. For this, he has to find a suitable place and time.

     In the fourteenth, people should avoid applying image family members of his wife, her family, because it might put her in an awkward position and hurt, and as a result it can also prevent anything insulting in relation to men.

     In modern Islam, as noted above have continued gender segregation. As it established a set of principles that reflect the value system of the Islamic society and its position in relation to the duties and responsibilities of man [9, c. 78].

     The first principle - prohibition of free men and women communicate. It has always condemned me, except when pursued important and law Mr. and purpose. For this reason, in many Muslim countries, schools, colleges, hospitals, public transport have special sections for women and men. Houses are planned so that the male visitor met the man. The women were likewise circle of friends, and they came to visit, do not occur with men.

     The second principle is that when communication still occurs, both men and women should observe decorum in language, attitudes and behavior. They must be restrained, "nehraylyvymy" to prevent any physical contact, look with interest at each other.

     The third principle does not allow to be alone man and woman, if they are not married or not in mahremnyh related. Even if the couple is officially engaged, you talk and look at each other they are permitted only in the presence of close relatives (haremiv) to avoid a temptation and opportunity for bad behavior.

     The fourth principle is that Muslim men should hide from enticing your body shape through strict clothing to all who see it, understand it decent, modest, honest woman who in any case does not seek to demonstrate their sexuality.

     As we see in Islam today is to try to maintain this relationship model men and women, as well as at its core is patriarchal. In it, a man regarded as the undisputed head of the family. According woman should respect her husband and obey him.

     In Muslim society emancipation by European dimensions are largely perceived. There is an understanding that emancipation can lead to the destruction of traditional Muslim the families, which in this situation is an important factor that helps Muslim civilization to compete with the Western world due to demographic factors.

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Категорія: Статті англійською мовою | Додав: Natali (12.05.2015)
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