UDC 378.1 Dr Zofia FRĄCZEK
University of Rzeszow
Institute of Pedagogy
У статті розглядаються питання, пов ’язані із формуванням і зростанням повноцінної, всесторонньо розвиненої дитини за підтримки сім ’ї. Автор аналізує підходи щодо класифікації потреб людини в цілому та потреб дитини, які підтримуються й задовольняються родиною.
Ключові слова: сім ’я, дитина, потреби, класифікація потреб, цінності, розвиток традиційних загальнолюдських цінностей у дитини.
В статье рассматриваются вопросы формирования и воспитания полноценного и развитого ребенка при поддержке семьи. Автор анализирует подходы к классификации потребностей человека в целом и потребностей ребенка в частности, которые поддерживаются и удовлетворяются семьей.
Ключевые слова: семья, ребенок, потребности, классификация потребностей, ценности, развитие традиционных общечеловеческих ценностей у ребенка.
The article deals with the problematic of upbringing and formation of the physically and spiritually developed child with the support of the family. The author analysis the approaches to the classification of the human needs and needs of a child satisfied by the family.
Key words: family, child, needs, classification of the needs, values, the development of the traditional universal values of a child.
1. The family as a suportive kinship
Human upbringing is posssible due to the fact that he is a social being and has a desire to develop relations with other people. Parents, who want to prolong their existence through the child, love him and want his love. The child wants to be loved, too so he craves for parental care, aceptance and respect. In this way a special bond is formed between them, as well as a dialogue whose main component is expression of love and commitment. The family as a kinship of life and love creates a natural environment of support. Mutual help and support in the family are conditioned by the phase of family life.
J. Piotrowski points out to five phases of family development, the phases whose basic criterion is the position of the child in the family. The author distinguished the folowing phases:
- the phase of forming the family, which is initiated by getting maried and finishes with the birth of the first child;
- the phase of the family growth lasting from the birth of the first child to the delivery of the last one;
- the phase of family stability comprising the period between the birth of the last child and leaving home by the first child;
- the phase of diminishing the size of the family which applies to the period between leaving home by the first child and the last one;
- the phase of the family decline, comprising the period betwen leaving home by the last child and the death of one of the spouses.
Mutual suport in the family, based on mature love meaning the decision to care about someone else’s good, is necessary for every member of the family in every stage of its development, particularly when life situation of individual members is dificult, exceeding their ability to function properly unaided. A special type of personal relations is marital kinship, comprising material, physically-sexual and mentally-spiritual sphere. This kinship is set up just before the mariage is contracted, and lasts until the end of human life. The most important factor which determines its persistence is love.
This family bond, based on love and respect, is also needed by the elderly members of the family. By staying in touch with their children and grandchildren, they are given the sense of support and safety, which makes them feel needed. Constant expressions of love and kindness give them fresh energy and the reason to live. Above all, this kinship-creating character of the family is essential for the children raised in the family. Parental love is expressed in many ways, depending on the degree of their awareness, as well as the stage of the child’s development and his corresponding needs. It can be identified even in prenatal period, when the mother, looking after her unborn child, avoids risky behaviours, which could hinder his development. Irrespective of satisfying other needs, nothing can substitute for the loving contact with parents, especially the mother. A lack of this contact inhibits the child’s phisical and psychical development.
2. Classifications of human needs
The notion of the need itself is defined as the state of deficiency of something which, due to the structure of organism, individual experience and the position of an individual in the society, is essential for sustaining one’s life, facilitating one’s development, keping a particular social role and maintaining a mental balance.
A. Maslow, one of the creators of humanistic psychology, put forward a theory according to which human needs constitute a specific, stable hierarchy, determining the order of satisfying them. The needs occupying a higher position in the hierarchy are activated only when lower-level needs have been satisfied.
A. Maslow classified the needs according to the degree of their indespensability, and pointed to:
- physiological needs such as hunger, thirst, sleep, the protection against weather conditions, pleasant sensual sensations, sexual needs;
- safety needs concerning the protection against body harm, death, the loss of belongings and the ones conected with medical care;
- the needs of belonging and love, including the need for belonging to the family or a particular group of friends;
- esteem needs, which concern achieving prestige, succes, respect, dominance and fame,
- the neeeds for self-actualisation, connnected with fulfilling one’s dreams and plans,
At the end of his life Maslow developed the abovementioned hierarchy of needs, specifying the higher order needs. He divided them into:
- cognitive needs - the need for knowledge, cognition, discovery and understanding
- aesthetic needs - the neeed for beauty, order, symetry;
- self-actualisation needs - the needs for realizing one’s own potential, fulfillment
- transcendent needs - the need for going beyond one’s own ego, acting for the sake of others.
A. Maslow argued that deprivation of human needs on particular levels leads to pathology. The character and intensity of the pathology depends on the kind and the extent of neglected needs.
3. The needs of a child satisfied by the family
In the course of child’s upbringing numerous needs are manifested. Every child, as a phisically-spiritual being, has biological and psychical needs i. e. the basic and higher needs. The former are a consequence of the structure of the organism and they are inborn e. g. the need for breathing, food, sleep, homeostasis and pain avoidance. Psychical needs are more difficult to capture, they are formed on the basis of primary needs, hence they are commonly referred to as secondary needs. Their structure is much more complex, since they depend on living conditions, the environment, educational influences, as well as individual capacities of the nervous system. The number of these needs is unlimited. The most important psychical needs include: the need for love, safety, self-actualisation, esteem and respect, social contact, the need for belonging, as well as the need for admiration, sense of life and individualisation. Another interesting classification of child’s needs was presented by Z. Dabrowski. According to this researcher the most important children’s needs include:
- the need for acceptance, irrespective of one’s weaknesses and shortcomings, as a sine qua non condition for creating the bonds between family members;
- the need for security, interpreted as a necessity to satisfy the universal values refering to oneself and the closest people in the family;
- the need for belonging and love understood as providing the sense of being loved by the environment and people, and the sense of being considered as irreplaceable;
- the need for recognition of all the constructive behaviours, efforts and initiative, which guarantees high self-esteem, and becomes the incentive for further activity;
- the need for positive psychical response, whose satisfaction requires understanding and appreciating by others the reasons for our activity, desires, cares and empathy. The point is to create the sense of kinship in a family;
- the need for exclusiveness, in order to become, in a way, the only person in the thoughts and feelings of the people we care for. It is realised through tolerance and having a place in the hearts of the loved ones;
- the need for emotional expression, understood as the necessity to express one’s mental states and feelings; sharing joys and sorrows with the loved ones, in order to keeep mental balance.
Apart from the aforementioned needs J. Wilk emphasizes the necessity to satisfy the following needs in the family: the need for help and support in case of illness, the need for intimacy and relaxation, the need for stability and good prospects.
The versatility of satisfying and developing by the parents both biological and psycho-social needs of the child is the necessary condition for his comprehensive development. Neglecting by parents the biological needs of the child is manifest in his phisical appearance. The basic symptoms of diregarding these needs are: inhibited phisical development, apathy, as well as phisical illnesses and psychical tiredness. These symptoms are the result of child’s undernutrition and the shortage of rest and recreation. Deficiency in satisfying biological needs entails problems with meeting psychical needs. Deprivation of psychical needs or their insufficient satisfaction can, in turn, lead to emotional disorders, underdevelopment of feelings and distortion of social development. For instance, not satisfying the need for love and emotional contact causes the sense of loss, fear, frustration, or even agression towards the social environment. Deficiencies in satisfying the need for social contact bring about speech and cognition impediments. Deprivation of the need for respect results in the low self-esteem, weakness, helplessness and distrust in one’s own strengths.
The family comprises a group of relationships rooted in the whole structure of human relations with the world, but also one of the psychological indicators of high standard of living, both in the current and prospective dimension. It is a sphere in which a young man is learning to solve his problems and take decisions. This is where regulatory mechanisms are formed, the ones which are supposed to condition the ability to cope with the future life difficulties. The family is also responsible for using human potential for development. It should provide a young person with a support in his development and his relations with the world.
An individual should experience the following types of support: emotional, evaluative, instrumental, informative and spiritual one. Emotional support consists in giving an individual the message: “you are loved”, “we like you”, “you have good points”, “don’t give up”, “don’t surrender”. Evaluative support, on the other hand, involves messages like: “you are someone important to me”, “we were able to achieve that thanks to you”, “keep on doing it”. Instrumental support boils down to providing real help and service. Informative support concerns giving advice on choosing education path or school. Spiritual (psychically-developmental) support emerges when an individual, despite his own attempts and efforts and other forms of support, remains in difficult position. Parental support is an enormously important factor facilitating child’s development, shaping his sense of competence, capability, productivity, and developing the ability to cope with stress. An individual has a sense of meaningness of his actions and treats new events as challenges developing his skills.[
Family is the best and the only setting for the proper child’s development in all its dimensions. The family manages to satisfy all his needs to a greater degree than any other natural envirionment. While emphasizing the educational role of family environment, it is worth pointing out to some characteristic distinctive features determining its uniqueness. These are: stability, phisicality, originality and spontaneity. The stability of family manifests itself both in a sense of its philogenetic development and individual existence. Although the patterns of family life are changing in the course of time, the family itself exhibits the continuity of forms over the years. Besides, setting up a new family takes place according to a pre-set patterns, shaped by the background tradition. Phisicality as a feature of the family is connected to the fact that the phisical existence of individual members of the family is of an enormous importance, as it sets and regulates their lives. The meaning of phisicality in the family manifests itself mainly in reproduction. The uniqueness of the family is connected with the implication of relations between the members of the family. The attitude of one person to the other results from fact that each of them represents a unique value. It should be noted that the uniqueness is, to a great extent, subjective and exists in the feelings of the people in the form of the experiences brought out by internal relations in the family. Spontaneity as another feature of the family is related to the variety of the aims realized by it.
It should also be emphasized that the family is the source of transmission of the symbols thanks to which the child makes contact with the environment, learns to react to deficiencies and express his emotions. This is where he shapes his value system, learns the norms of behaviour, assumes the first roles and gets ready for taking on the next ones.If the family manages to create a suitable atmosphere for the child, the one which enhances development, it is very likely that he will accept the instilled system of values. Otherwise, the child might be resistant to assuming the values.
Thus, the family seems to be an asset which makes an individual aware of the need to respect other values, necessary for his well-being. It is the family which teaches the child to respect the value of life and health, as well as human dignity. Family shapes the awareness of the importance of such crucial values as responsibility, justice or altruism. Therefore nowadays, with the alarming alternatives to the traditional model of the family getting more and more popular (which, in turn, is the result of realizing the values of extreme individualism, liberalism and subjectivism), we should put a special emphasis on the traditional model of the family, immersed in the Christian culture and its values.
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